Boxing. The knockout of racism and inequality in America

Modern boxing is as old as America. They've grown up together, and like America itself, boxing is just as wonderful as cruel. It is as beautiful as the primary. From the bloody and illegal "exhibitions" in New Orleans to the fierce fights of the West to the West, boxing began to erupt in American boxing. It's called "Sweet Science" and "The Purple Art of Self-Defense", but ultimately, "boxing is a fight and a combat sport, a war on weapons", spoiling two fighters to fight one another in a round.

We can follow the history of America and the boxing arches of poor and destroyed boxing. Prizefighting is a prism through which we can view the most advanced in American history and struggle. The heroes of the legend often present the social problems of the day. In many ways the game of struggle serves as a means of "socio-economic" promotion. Author and boxer historian eff Efri T. Samson says: Beyond the Ring. "The Role of Boxing in American Society:" The sequence (of the great fighters) shifted from Irish to Jewish … Italians lacking B and Latin (o) s, an example that reflected the socio-economic ladder. As each group rose, it drove their youth into the pursuit and prompted them to pursue more prospective … pursuits. ”

In particular, two militants embody the struggle of their people, the unmistakably Irish L.O. Sullivan and Jack Black are Jack nsson.

Boxing & 39th Origin:

Boxing originated in Ancient Greece, and was part of the Olympic Games in BC. 688. Homer mentions the boxer in the Iliad. Boxing historian Michael Katz remembers the primitive origins of the sport.

Similarly to the first American settlers, the Presbyterians traveled from England to the New World. And like the pilgrims, the first days of boxing were often cruel and violent. Summons says: "Like so many American cultural, social, political and intellectual institutions, boxing originates in England. In the late 1700s, when sport existed only in its most formidable form, the British refugee struggle meant an air of wisdom and acceptance.

Early Puritans and Republicans often played the game of oppressive monarchies in Europe, but as American leisure opponents lost ground, the sport began to grow rapidly. Boxers in the 1820s and 1830s and 1830s, often referred to as a pistol, became a popular sport among American "immigrants who were not used to the restrictions on entertainment and games."

As the sport grew in popularity with immigrants, so did the myth of the individual. For better or worse, the United States is a people based on an individual's myth. This is the American dream, the fundamental doctrine that we can all "get our hands on" and become extremely rich, brutally successful and insane. For nearly two hundred years, the Heavyweight Champion has been the crown jewel of the sports world and the physical embodiment of the American Dream. He was the most difficult, "worst man" on the planet, and commanded to respect the world.

Samson says: “(T) he physical person is still in favor of the potential of the individual and the survival of the strongest person. He is the embodiment of the American Dream in which the lowest of individuals rises to the top on their own initiative and persistence. .This is the pointless escape of the dream. The meaning of the dream lies in its acceptance, not its fulfillment. "During the 1880's no one embodied the physical person or the American dream more than boxing's first great weightlifter L. L. L. Sullivan.

L. on L. Saliva and the burden of the Irish

Sullivan, also known as "Boston's Strongest Boy," was the last of the "naked jaw" champions. The son of poor Irish immigrants, he was a ruthless and hard-working man who was "going through a vaudeville connection, offering fifty dollars to anyone who could spend four rounds with him." Sullivan famously challenged his audience, saying: "I can lick any sonizer in the house."

The Boston Strongboy became one of the first legends in American and 39th sport when he stole millionaire Richard Kyle Fox, owner and owner of the National Police newspaper and National Enquierer. Legend has it that one fateful evening in the spring of 1881, while at New York's Harry Hill and Days Hall and at Emporium Boxing Hotel, Fox was so impressed with one of Sullivan's and 39's boxing games that invited him to his desk for a job chat, which Salivi openly refused, acquiring Fox & # 39; s hatred. "

Sammons notes:

The fox was furious and promised to break the Sullivan, as well as control the crown. He didn't either. Sullivan defeated all comers, including some of Fox's hopes. "Sullivan has become an international celebrity and American icon," rising through the ranks without looking at others. But Sullivan did more than build a personal conclusion, but: he helped raise boxing. The award ring now spread the estuary between the lower and upper classes. »

Sullivan has become a symbol of hope and pride for recent Irish immigrants living in a new, hostile country. About two million Irish immigrants arrived in America between 1820 and 1860. Most arrived as insurance agents and were considered more than slaves in the new country. Of those two million immigrants, approximately 75 percent arrived in Potato Hunger between 1845 and 1852. The Irish fled from poverty, illness, and English pressure. The Potato Dill has claimed the lives of nearly one million Irish people.

Author Jim My Kinsella says:

America became their dream. The early letters of the immigrants characterized it as a land of abundance and encouraged others to follow through with the Golden Door. & # 39; These letters were read during social events encouraging young people to join them in this wonderful new country. They drove ships that were so crowded, so terrible that they were called "coffin ships." & # 39; (par. 1)

The Irish were coming to America in vain and often unwanted. An old proverb sums up the disappointment of American immigrants in the nineties. “I came to America because I had heard that the streets were covered with gold. When I got here, I found three things: First, the streets were not & # 39; second, they were not paving at all, and third, I was expecting them to be smooth. "

Kinsella says:

Our immigrant ancestors were not looking for America. Occupational advertising was often followed by "no need to turn to the Irish". They had to live in basements and shanties … without (in) plumbing and (in) running water. These conditions led to illness and early death. It was estimated that 80 percent of all newborns born to Irish immigrants in New York City died … The Chicago Post wrote: "The Irish are filling our prisons, our poor homes … scratching the prisoner or the grandfathers, and chances are that (we) are blocking the skin of the Irish Catholic. Sending them by boat and sending them home will end up in this crime country.

But the Irish arrived at America's needs. Kinsella continues:

The country was growing, and men had to do the hard work of building bridges, canals, and railways. It was a difficult, dangerous job. A common expression among railroad workers was that "the Irish were buried under every tie.

L. on L. Salivan was the pride of the Irish during his legendary reign between 1882 and 1892).

Historian Benjamin Rader wrote:

Athletes, as public heroes, served as a compensatory cultural function. They helped the public to offset the traditional dream of success … and feelings of personal powerlessness. As society became more complex and systematic, and as bureaucracies had to succeed more and more, the need for heroes outside of the rules of fame and fortune seemed to grow.

During his tenure as champion. no one drew the public's attention more than the "mighty Boston." He killed Paddy Ryan in Mississippi, Mississippi, for the February 7, 1882 "heavyweight boxing exhibition" for the American Heavyweight Championship. The champion belt was called the "$ 10,000 Belt" and "something a king was comfortable with." Summons notes: an additional 397 diamonds adorned the emblem. "

After receiving a $ 10,000 belt, Sullivan regretted it and sold it for $ 175. He later defeated his arch-nemesis Ake Eileen Kreine in the seventy-fifth round, noting the final "bare-jaw" championship. boxing history. Sullivan reigned supreme, before losing his knockout to a younger, faster, more skilled fighter named "Le gentleman" in the twenty-fifth round of Cor My Corbett, 1892, in New Orleans, Louisiana.

You are Jack nsson and black pressure

Boxing historian Bert Shugar once said: “Boxing is a weird, weird sport. Bottom line – it's a legalized attack, but it has allowed people to be better throughout history. (I) have always been a sportsman. banished and the lowest ramp on any ladder. " Except for Native Americans, no group in American history has been as "rejected" as African Americans. They were stolen from their homes in Africa and moved to desperate conditions to live a life of slavery in America. “From the 16th to the 19th centuries, approximately 12 million Africans were displaced as slaves to America. Of those, about 645,000 came from what is now in the United States. (By the 1860 United States census, the slave population in the United States had grown to four million. "

From the very first moment they set foot on American soil, life was cruel to blacks in the New World. Although black slaves were freed after President Abraham Lincoln issued the "Declaration of Release" on January 1, 1863, it would be nearly a hundred years before blacks reached full equality in America. The twenty years between 1880 and 1900 were extremely difficult for blacks in America. The Congress went through a series of anti-legal actions that ended with the 1896 Pless v. Ferguson ruling guaranteeing second-class citizenship for blacks and marking the beginning of Jim Crow's era in America.

Although there were many black fighters during this twenty-year period, blacks were forbidden to fight for the heavyweight championship. Simmons writes: "Until 1880, the heavyweight boxing championship symbolized … the rise of the 39th World in America and the world … the title holder stood as a shining example of American strength and racial excellence."

But the retirement of the "granite jaw" and 1905 unbeaten heavyweight champion James Ames Ries retired. After winning unconvincing champions, boxing fans began to lose interest. By 1907 the first black heavyweight contender matured. Athletes of the day believed that the black fighter would bring public interest in boxing, while also proving "white physical and mental superiority".

A legend was born in 1908 and his name is Jack ye nsson.

Jack u nsson, later known as the "Black Menace," was an unknown fighter from Galveston, Texas. He would become one of the greatest and most daring athletes in the history of American sports. He was a huge man with a brilliant smile and incredible speed. Out of the ring and out of it Joh Johnson was bigger than life. Although he left school in the fifth grade, Joh Johnson was a clever and secular man. He played the archer, loved opera and literature, idolized Napoleon Bonaparte, and even invented and patented a tool used to fix cars. She also loved fast cars, fantastic costumes and white women. Even worse, white women loved him so much. When one of the reporters witnessed the ensuing parade of ns Johnson and the women who left the 39th hotel room, he asked that the champion keep his "staying power" secret. Ns Ansson replied: "Eat honey and think distant thoughts."

Actor James James Earl Jons, who played the legendary Jack Yousson in the movie Great White Hope, says: "He lived his life by his rules, the balls, the head and the heart."

Athletes of the time believed in the "abomination of the abominable, defenseless Joh Johnson, the possessor of white privileges, (being) a moral event of goodness against evil, (which) would serve as a lesson that resembled public black lingerie. did not know their place in American society. "

They couldn't be more wrong.

In Sydney, Australia, Jack Johnson defeated heavyweight champion Tommy Burns to win the crown. After the fight, the "Black Menace" became the instant hero of the legacies of blacks and racist Jim My Crow policies of the three hundred years of slavery. The headlines of "Richmond Planet" read: "No event in 40 years has been more satisfying to people of color in this country than you have the only victory for Johnson." After winning the title, Jack Nonson will head the world of boxing, and the white supremacists, after seven years of persecution, disguise the reigning champion and return to his "right ethnic group". Thus began the era of the Great White Hope.

The era of the Great White Hope was as funny as it was tragic. Prom dancers have sunk the country in search of white contenders for more than 170 pounds. One of the athletes recalled: "The heat of the search, the white guys with good muscles, over six feet, two inches tall, were not safe from their mothers."

Ns Johnson, also known as the Galveston Giant, fought and eliminated the next five rivals, including middleweight champion Stanley Ketchell. The fight with Ketchel was especially memorable. Prior to the "Exhibition Concourse", two old fighters agreed to take it easy with each other, and they did so until the twelfth round, when Ketchell saw the opening and regretted ns onson with his right cross on his head. After standing on his feet, Joh Johnson was so upset that he knelt down to Crashell cold. The punch was so devastating that Ketchel and the 39th front teeth were fouled in the nonsson and 39th boxing gloves. The fight shows that Black Men is a big middleweight champion and teeth-to-glove fighter.

White America was outraged by the humiliating defeat of the Great White Hopes. Jack Johnson's success threatened the whole foundation of American society. Worse still, there is another black heavyweight in the ascent, oe no Janet. He had never had a white privilege and was preferably so successful and violent. Simmons writes: “It was almost alarming for White to be another lucky black heavyweight boxer, Oe Je Jeanne. Together Joh Johnson and Janet seemed to condemn the threat of white supremacy … "

Heavyweight retired champion and boxing legend James Ephris returns to the field with deaf ears. After the Kettle defeat, author Jack You London wrote: "Golden smile tells the story, and golden smile – ns onson & # 39; s, but one thing remains, J Ephris has to return from the alfalfa farm and remove the golden smile from Jack & Joh & Johnson. face. "

Eff Efery agreed to fight Joh Johnson. "I feel obliged to the sporting community to at least make an effort to reclaim the white-heavyweight championship … I have to come out to the ring again and show that the white man is king. Trade center. "

The meeting between Joh Johnson and eff Efrice was considered the Battle of the Century. Eff Efriz was an unforgettable legend. On the broad shoulders of White Amy Effrey all hopes of the white man rested. He meant gloomy, had a steel chisel, and hit like a truck. He stood six feet two inches high and weighed 225 pounds. In his championship, the eff ephrase could sprint 100 yards in more than ten seconds and could jump up to six feet.

Although he had retired in the previous three years, ries efrin trained for the nsson fight, as if his life were continuing. Նա կորցրեց ապշեցուցիչ 100 ֆունտ և մտավ պայքարի, որը որոշեց ջարդել Jackեք nsոնսոնին և վերականգնել ստատուս-քվոն Ամերիկայում:

Ծեծկռտուքն առաջ բերեց հանրային հիստերիայի մակարդակ, որը նախկինում Ամերիկայում չէր երևում: Սպիտակ ամերիկացիների համար effեֆրին վերահաստատում է աֆրիկյան անլիարժեքությունը «և այդ բարբարոսներին ոչնչացնելու սպիտակ ցանկությունը»: Սևամորթների համար nsոնսոնը պայքարում էր ռասիզմի և հետապնդումների ժառանգության դեմ: Հեղափոխական Reverdy Ransom- ը գրեց. «(W) գլխարկը Jackեք nsոնսոնը ձգտում է անել theեֆերինին ՝ ճոպանուղու ասպարեզում, ավելի շատ կլինի Նեգրոյի հավակնությունը մարդկության բոլոր ոլորտներում»:

Ռենոն ծեծկռտուք էր տանում մինչև պայքարը: Բռնցքամարտի երկրպագուների հետ փչում էր 15000 բնակիչ ունեցող քաղաք: Մարդիկ քնում էին իրենց մեքենաներում կամ զբոսայգիների նստարաններում: Բարերն ու բանտերը լիքն էին: «30 հոգուց բաղկացած մեկ ռեստորան ծառայեց երեսուն վեց հարյուր ընթրիքի»: Londonեք Լոնդոնը գրել է. «Ռենո, Նևադա. 1910 թվականի հուլիսի 1-ին: Ես ուրախ եմ, որ ես այստեղ եմ: Ոչ մի մարդ, ով սիրում է մարտական ​​խաղը, գին ունի և Ռենոյի վառ հեռավորության վրա է, պետք է բաց թողնի այս պայքարը: Երբևէ ոչինչ չի եղել: ինչպես դա ռինգի պատմության մեջ »:

Երկու զինյալները վերջապես հանդիպեցին 1910-ի հուլիսի 4-ին Նևադա քաղաքի Ռենո քաղաքում ՝ 20,000 խռովարար երկրպագուների առջև: Եք nsոնսոնը ծեծի է ենթարկել ավելի մեծ մարդու: Նա ավելի երիտասարդ էր, ավելի արագ և ավելի հմուտ, քան 34-ամյա effեֆրին: Նա նրան ծեծի է ենթարկել դանակով և կապել այն ճարմանդում, երբ երկու մարտիկները ներգրավվել են: Չորրորդ փուլով ակնհայտ էր, որ nsոնսոնը ավելի լավ մարդ էր:

«Գալվեսթոնի հսկան» պաստառապատեց նախկին չեմպիոնին: Նա ծեծի է ենթարկել և ծեծել նրան: Նա պարեց և ժպտաց ու կատակեց ամբոխի առջև ՝ նախքան մարմնին ջախջախիչ համադրություն սանձազերծելը, և աջ ձեռքը սայթաքելով մարտահրավերների գլխին: Nsոնսոնը խաղացել է effեֆրիսի հետ այնպես, ինչպես վագրը խաղալու էր հին տոմատի հետ, նախքան վերջապես չհրապարակելով տասնհինգերորդ ռաունդում սպանվելու համար: Nsոնսոնի և 39-րդ ջախջախիչ հարվածների հետևանքները զգացվել են ամբողջ երկրում: Ամերիկայի յուրաքանչյուր խոշոր քաղաքում ռասսայական անկարգություններ եղան: Պատմաբան Ռանդի Ռոբերթսն ասում է. «Նախկինում երբևէ մեկ դեպք տեղի ունեցավ այսպիսի տարածված ապստամբության պատճառ: Դեռևս մինչև կրտսեր Մարտին Լյութեր Քինգի սպանությունը կրտսեր պատանիների սպանությունը այլ իրադարձություն չէր առաջացնի նմանատիպ արձագանք»:

Blackեք nsոնսոնի սևամորթ հերոսը հերոս էր գտել: Ամերիկյան պատմության մեջ առաջին անգամ նրանք կարող էին ոտքի կանգնել և հպարտանալ իրենց ժառանգությամբ և իրենց ժողովրդով: Fateեք nsոնսոնը ոչ միայն հաղթեց fateեյմս effեֆրիին այդ ճակատագրական գիշերը, այլև նոկաուտի ենթարկեց 300 տարվա ռասիզմը, նվաստացումը և ճնշումը: Nsեֆրիի նկատմամբ nsոնսոնի և 39-րդ հաղթանակի ֆիլմը Ամերիկայում անցկացվող համագումարով արգելվեց: Laterոնսոնը հետագայում ձերբակալվեց 1912-ին և բանտարկեց մեկ տարի բանտարկության մեջ ՝ «անբարո նպատակներով կանանց (սպիտակներով) կանանց տեղափոխելու համար»:

Նա կրկին ձերբակալվեց նմանատիպ մեղադրանքներով 1913 թ.-ին: Ավելի ուշ նա գրավադրեց գրավի դիմաց և փախավ Ֆրանսիա իր կնոջ ՝ Լյուսիլի հետ, որտեղ նա անցավ յոթ տարի աքսորում: Բոլոր ժամանակների ամենավիճահարույց մենամարտերից մեկում Johոնսոնը կորցրեց չեմպիոնությունը 1915-ին Կուբայի Հավանա քաղաքում ՝ անսանձ կովբոյի հետ, որը կոչվեց essես Ուիլարդ: Մինչ օրս բռնցքամարտի մասնագետների լեգեոներները, ներառյալ ինքը ՝ «Գալվեսթոնի հսկան», պնդում է, որ պայքարը «շտկիչ» է, պնդելով, որ nsոնսոնը պայքարը գցեց ԱՄՆ-ում իր առաջիկա դատական ​​գործերում մեղմության դիմաց:

Ոչ ոք, բայց Jackեք nsոնսոնը երբևէ հաստատ կիմանա, թե արդյոք նա գցեց պայքարը: Այն, ինչ մենք գիտենք, այն է, որ առաջիկա քսաներկու տարվա ընթացքում սևամորթ մարտիկներին համակարգվածորեն մերժել են ծանր քաշայինների առաջնության հնարավորությունը `կառավարության և բռնցքամարտիկների պատասխանատուների միջև դավադրությամբ: «Սևերը» կտևեին մինչև 1937 թվականը, երբ լեգենդար աֆրոամերիկացի կործանիչ oeո «The Brown Bomber» Louis- ը ծանր քաշային կոչման համար ջախջախեց Jamesեյմս «Մոխրոտի մարդ» Բրեդդոկին:

Եվ այսպես սկսվում է oeո Լուիի դարաշրջանը, և բռնցքամարտի պատմության մեջ տիրում է ամենաերկար և ամենաառաջնային առաջնության սկիզբը: (1)

(1) oeո Լուիը ծանր քաշային կարգի առաջնություն անցկացրեց ռեկորդային 12 ուղիղ տարիների ընթացքում ՝ 1935-1949 թվականներին: Չեմպիոնության օրոք, oeո Լուիը հաջողությամբ պաշտպանեց իր տիտղոսը 26 անգամ ՝ սահմանելով ամբողջ ժամանակի ռեկորդը: 2005 թ.-ին «Բրաունի ռմբակոծիչը» բռնցքամարտի միջազգային հետազոտական ​​կազմակերպության կողմից զբաղեցրեց բոլոր ժամանակների # 1 ծանրորդ մարտիկ, և զբաղեցրեց # 1 տեղը Մատանին & # 39; բոլոր ժամանակների 100 մեծագույն մատների ցուցակը »: